Categories
Accounting

<organizational culture

I am assigning you Comprehensive Case Study #3, ‘Building a Coalition’. You will find this case beginning on page 680. This assignment is not due until Week 8 of the class, but you should at least read through the case and be thinking about it.
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Detailed OB Comprehensive Case Study Guidelines are under the ‘Course Documents’ Tab. When working on your Comprehensive Case Studies, be sure to read and re-read the ‘Your Assignment’ part of it. Who is your report to be addressed to? What information are they asking for? Are there any additional documents that they ask from you? Not everything applies to all of the cases. Be sure you know exactly what your assigned case is asking for.
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Case 3 Building a Coalition
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Learning Goals
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Many of the most important organizational behavior challenges require coordinating plans and goals among groups. This case describes a multiorganizational effort, but the same principles of accommodation and compromise also apply when trying to work with multiple divisions within a single organization. You’ll create a blueprint for managing a complex development team’s progress in order to steer team members away from negative conflicts and toward productive discussion. You’ll also be asked to help create a new message for executives so they can lead effectively.
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Major Topic Areas
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Group dynamics
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Maximizing team performance
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Organizational culture
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Integrative bargaining
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The Scenario
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The Woodson Foundation, a large nonprofit social service agency, is teaming up with the public school system in Washington, D.C., to improve student outcomes. There’s ample room for improvement. The schools have problems with truancy, low student performance, and crime. New staff members quickly burn out as their initial enthusiasm for helping students is blunted by the harsh realities they encounter in the classroom. Turnover among new teachers is very high, and many of the best and brightest are the most likely to leave for schools that aren’t as troubled.
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The plan is to create an experimental after-school program that will combine the Woodson Foundation’s skills of raising private money and coordinating community leaders with the educational expertise of school staff. Ideally, the system will be financially self-sufficient, which is important because less money is available for schools than in the past. After several months of negotiation, the leaders of the Woodson Foundation and the school system have agreed that the best course is to develop a new agency that will draw on resources from both organizations. The Woodson Foundation will provide logistical support and program development and measurement staff; the school system will provide classrooms and teaching staff.
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The first stage in bringing this new plan to fruition is the formation of an executive development team. This team will span multiple functional areas and establish the operating plan for improving school performance. Its cross-organizational nature means representatives from both the Woodson Foundation and the school district must participate. The National Coalition for Parental Involvement in Education (NCPIE) is also going to be a major partner in the program, acting as a representative for parents on behalf of the PTA.
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Conflict and Agreement in the Development Team
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While it would be perfect if all the groups could work together easily to improve student outcomes, there is little doubt some substantive conflicts will arise. Each group has its own interests, and, in some cases, these are directly opposed to one another.
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School district representatives want to ensure that the new jobs will be unionized and will operate in a way that is consistent with current school board policies. They are very concerned that if Woodson assumes too dominant a role, the school board won’t be able to control the operations of the new system. The complexity of the school system has led to the development of a highly complex bureaucratic structure over time, and administrators want to make sure their policies and procedures will still hold for teachers in these programs even outside the regular school day. They also worry that jobs going into the new system will take funding from other school district jobs.
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Woodson, founded by entrepreneur Theodore Woodson around 1910, still bears the hallmarks of its founder’s way of doing business. Woodson emphasized efficiency and experimentation in everything he did. Many of the foundation’s charities have won awards for minimizing costs while still providing excellent services. Their focus on using hard data to measure performance for all their initiatives is not consistent with the school district culture.
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Finally, the NCPIE is driven by a mission to increase parental control. The organization believes that when communities are able to drive their own educational methods, students and parents are better able to achieve success together. The organization is strongly committed to celebrating diversity along racial, gender, ethnic, and disability status categories. Its members are most interested in the process by which changes are made, ensuring that everyone has the ability to weigh in.
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Some demographic diversity issues complicate the team’s situation. Most of the students served by the Washington, D.C., school district are African American, along with large populations of Caucasians and Hispanics. The NCPIE makeup generally matches the demographic diversity of the areas served by the public schools. The Woodson Foundation, based in northern Virginia, is predominantly staffed by Caucasian professionals. There is some concern that this new group that will be so involved in this major change in educational administration does not understand the demographic concerns of the community. The leadership of the new program will have to be able to present an effective message for generating enthusiasm for the program across diverse stakeholder groups.
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Although the groups differ in important ways, it’s also worth considering what they have in common. All are interested in meeting the needs of students. All would like to increase student learning. The school system does benefit from anything that increases student test scores. The Woodson Foundation and NCPIE are united in their desire to see more parents engaged in the system.
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Candidates for the Development Team
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The development team will consist of three individuals—an HR representative from the Woodson Foundation, one from the school system, and one from the NCPIE—who have prepared the following list of potential candidates for consideration.
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Victoria Adams is the superintendent of schools for Washington, D.C. She spearheaded the initial communication with the Woodson Foundation and has been building support among teachers and principals. She thinks the schools and the foundation need to have larger roles than the parents and communities. “Of course, we want their involvement and support, but as professionals, we should have more say when it comes to making decisions and implementing programs. We don’t want to shut anyone out, but we have to be realistic about what the parents can do.”
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Duane Hardy has been a principal in the Washington area for more than 15 years. He also thinks the schools should have the most power. “We’re the ones who work with these kids every day. I’ve watched class sizes get bigger, and scores and graduation rates go down. Yes, we need to fix this, but these outside groups can’t understand the limitations we’re dealing with. We have the community, the politicians, the taxpayers—everyone watching what we’re doing, everyone thinking they know what’s best. The parents, at least, have more of a stake in this.”
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“The most important thing is the kids,” says ­second-year teacher Ari Kaufman, who is well liked by his students but doesn’t get along well with other faculty members. He’s seen as a “squeaky wheel.” “The schools need change so badly. And how did they get this way? From too little outside involvement.”
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Community organizer Mason Dupree doesn’t like the level of bureaucracy either. He worries that the school’s answer to its problems is to throw more money at them. “I know these kids. I grew up in these neighborhoods. My parents knew every single teacher I had. The schools wanted our involvement then. Now all they want is our money. And I wouldn’t mind giving it to them if I thought it would be used responsibly, not spent on raises for people who haven’t shown they can get the job done.”
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Meredith Watson, with the Woodson Foundation, agrees the schools have become less focused on the families. A former teacher, she left the field of education after being in the classroom for 6 years. “There is so much waste in the system,” she complains. “Jobs are unnecessarily duplicated, change processes are needlessly convoluted. Unless you’re an insider already, you can’t get anything done. These parents want to be involved. They know their kids best.”
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Unlike her NCPIE colleagues, Candace Sharpe thinks the schools are doing the best they can. She is a county social worker, relatively new to the D.C. area. “Parents say they want to be involved but then don’t follow through. We need to step it up, we need to lead the way. Lasting change doesn’t come from the outside, it comes from the home.”
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Victor Martinez has been at the Woodson Foundation for 10 years, starting as an intern straight out of college. “It’s sometimes hard to see a situation when you’re in the thick of it,” he explains. “Nobody likes to be told they’re doing something wrong, but sometimes it has to be said. We all know there are flaws in the system. We can’t keep the status quo. It just isn’t cutting it.”
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Strategies for the Program Team
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Once the basic membership and principles for the development team have been established, the program team would also like to develop a handbook for those who will be running the new program. Ideally, this set of principles can help train new leaders to create an inspirational message that will facilitate success. The actual content of the program and the nature of the message will be hammered out by the development team, but it is still possible to generate some overriding principles for the program team in advance of these decisions.
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Your Assignment
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The Woodson Foundation, the NCPIE, and the schools have asked you to provide some information about how to form teams effectively. They would like your response to explain what should be done at each step of the way, from the selection of appropriate team members to setting group priorities and goals, setting deadlines, and describing effective methods for resolving conflicts that arise. After this, they’d like you to prepare a brief set of principles for leaders of the newly established program. That means you will have two audiences: the development team, which will receive one report on how it can effectively design the program, and the program team, which will receive one report on how it can effectively lead the new program.
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The following points should help you form a comprehensive message for the development team:
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CC-17. The development team will be more effective if members have some idea about how groups and teams typically operate. Review the dominant perspectives on team formation and performance from the chapters in the text for the committee so it can know what to expect.
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CC-18. Given the profiles of candidates for the development team, provide suggestions for who would likely be a good group member and who might be less effective in this situation. Be sure you are using the research on groups and teams in the text to defend your choices.
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CC-19. Using principles from the chapters on groups and teams, describe how you will advise the team to manage conflict effectively.
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CC-20. Describe how integrative negotiation strategies might achieve joint goals for the development team.
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The following points should help you form a message for the program team:
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CC-21. Leaders of the new combined organization should have a good idea of the culture of the school district, the NCPIE, and the Woodson Foundation because they will need to manage relationships with all three groups on an ongoing basis. How would you describe the culture of these various stakeholder organizations? Use concepts from the chapter on organizational culture to describe how they differ and how they are similar.
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CC-22. Consider how leaders of the new program can generate a transformational message and encourage employee and parent trust. Using material from the chapter on leadership, describe how you would advise leaders to accomplish these ends.
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CC-23. Given the potential for demographic faultlines in negotiating these changes, what would you advise as a strategy for managing diversity issues for program leaders?

Categories
Accounting

<these studies suggest that we often confuse the desire for power with other things—like the desire to be respected and to help our groups and organizations succeed.

Read the Point – Counter Point on Page 462 of Chapter Thirteen in your textbook. Take a position and then debate your position on the Discussion Board. Provide references to the textbook, consult outside sources, and reply to a minimum of 2 of your classmates.
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Everyone Wants Power
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Point
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We don’t admit to everything we want. For instance, one psychologist found people would seldom admit to wanting money, but they thought everyone else wanted it. They were half right—everyone wants money. And everyone wants power.
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Harvard psychologist David McClelland was justifiably famous for his study of underlying motives. McClelland measured people’s motivation for power based on how they described pictures (this method is called the Thematic Apperception Test [TAT]). Why didn’t he simply ask people how much they wanted power? Because he believed that many more people really wanted power than would admit it or even consciously realize. And that’s exactly what he found.
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Why do we want power? Because it is good for us. It gives us more control over our own lives. It gives us more freedom to do as we wish. There are few things worse in life than feeling helpless and few better than feeling in charge of your destiny. Research shows people with power and status command more respect from others, have higher self-esteem (no surprise there), and enjoy better health than those of less stature.
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Take Steve Cohen, founder of SAC Capital Advisors and one of the most powerful men on Wall Street. Worth $11.1 billion, Cohen buys Picassos, lives in a mansion, has white-gloved butlers, and travels the world first class. People will do almost anything to please him—or even to get near him. One writer notes, “Inside his offices, vast fortunes are won and lost. Careers are made and unmade. Type-A egos are inflated and crushed, sometimes in the space of hours.” All this is bad for Steve Cohen how?
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Usually, people who tell you power doesn’t matter are those who have no hope of getting it. Wanting power, like being jealous, can be one of those secrets people just won’t admit to.
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Counterpoint
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Of course it’s true that some people desire power—and often behave ruthlessly to get it. For most of us, however, power is not high in priority, and for some, it’s actually undesirable.
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Research shows that most individuals feel uncomfortable when placed in powerful positions. One study asked individuals, before they began work in a four-person team, to “rank, from 1 [highest] to 4 [lowest], in terms of status and influence within the group, what rank you would like to achieve.” Only about one-third (34 percent) of participants chose the highest rank. In a second study, researchers focused on employees participating in Amazon’s Mechanical Turk online service. They found that the main reason people wanted power was to earn respect. If they could get respect without gaining power, that was preferred. In a third study, researchers found that individuals desired power only when they had high ability—in other words, when their influence helped their groups.
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These studies suggest that we often confuse the desire for power with other things—like the desire to be respected and to help our groups and organizations succeed. In these cases, power is something most of us seek for more benevolent ends—and only when we think it does good.
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Another study confirmed that most people want respect from their peers, not power. Cameron Anderson, the author of this research, sums it up nicely: “You don’t have to be rich to be happy, but instead be a valuable contributing member to your groups. What makes a person high in status in a group is being engaged, generous with others, and making self-sacrifices for the greater good.”
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Oh, and about Steve Cohen … you realize he pleaded guilty and paid a $1.2 billion fine for failing to prevent insider trading and then had to shut down SAC, right?
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Sources: Based on B. Burrough and B. McLean, “The Hunt for Steve Cohen,” Vanity Fair, June 2013, http://www.vanityfair.com/news/business/2013/06/steve-cohen-insider-trading-case; C. Anderson, R. Willer, G. J. Kilduff, and C. E. Brown, “The Origins of Deference: When Do People Prefer Lower Status?,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): 1077–88; C. Anderson, M. W Kraus, A. D. Galinsky, and D. Keltner, “The Local-Ladder Effect: Social Status and Subjective Well-Being,” Psychological Science 23(7) (2012): 764–71; S. Kennelly, “Happiness Is about Respect, Not Riches,” Greater Good, July 13, 2012, http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/happiness_is_about_respect_not_riches; and P. Lattman and B. Protess, “$1.2 Billion Fine for Hedge Fund SAC Capital in Insider Case,” The New York Times Dealbook, November 4, 2013, http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2013/11/04/sac-capital-agrees-to-plead-guilty-to-insider-trading/?_r=0.

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Accounting

It is a difficult decision to make because not only do the leaders need to make the best decision for themselves, they also have many people in the organization who depend on them and their leadership skills to remain successful.

Please respond to the Ethical Dilemma questions: Should I Stay or Should I Go? found on page 425. Responses should be submitted in complete sentences with proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Please be thoughtful in writing detailed work using specific examples when appropriate. Outside research should be sought in support of your work; please be sure to cite sources. Personal experience can also be used, in place of outside research.
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Ethical Dilemma Should I Stay or Should I Go?
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Although many CEOs are fired for political reasons and power struggles, and others are fired for unethical behavior, many choose willingly to leave their organizations. It is a difficult decision to make because not only do the leaders need to make the best decision for themselves, they also have many people in the organization who depend on them and their leadership skills to remain successful. Leader departures can cause subordinates who are attached to those leaders to become detached and to think about leaving as well. But one can understand why CEOs might leave or change careers. For example, Mohamed El-Erian, the CEO of Pimco, left the firm in 2014 when his daughter handed him a list before her bedtime. Her list included all the momentous events and activities that he missed in her life due to work commitments.
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Not only does the CEO perhaps have an obligation to the company—the company also has an obligation to the CEO. Erika Andersen, a writer at Forbes, notes, “Top talent leave an organization when [it is] … badly managed and the organization is confusing and uninspiring.” These reasons can just as easily apply to leaders.
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A newer approach suggests that we should see turnover as inevitable, even for star performers. As Professor Finkelstein of Dartmouth College notes, “The bosses I studied also took advantage of a wonderful paradox: When you stop hoarding your people and focus on creating a talent flow, you find that more of your top people actually do wind up staying.” In addition, when these CEOs leave, they are added to the so-called alumni network and can become powerful allies for the organization in the future.
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Questions
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12-10. What do you think a CEO or leader should do prior to considering leaving the organization? What does the CEO or leader owe the employees? Why?
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12-11. Do you think there is an appropriate time for a CEO or leader to consider or announce leaving the organization? What are some examples of times when he or she should not leave? What about examples of the best times for a CEO to leave?
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12-12. What can organizations do to retain their CEOs and leaders? Is this an exercise in futility (in other words, is it meaningless to try to do anything)? Why or why not?
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Sources: Based on E. Andersen, “Why Top Talent Leaves: Top 10 Reasons Boiled Down to 1,” Forbes, January 18, 2012, https://www.forbes.com/sites/erikaandersen/2012/01/18/why-top-talent-leaves-top-10-reasons-boiled-down-to-1/#5eef38a04e43; N. Bozionelos and S. Mukhuty, “Why CEOs Resign: Poor Performance or Better Opportunities?,” Academy of Management Perspectives 29, no. 1 (2015): 4–6; R. Derousseau, “5 CEOs Who Quit for the Right Reasons,” Fortune, October 21, 2014, http://fortune.com/2014/10/21/ceos-quit-right-reasons/; M. N. Desai, A. Lockett, and D. Paton, “The Effects of Leader Succession and Prior Leader Experience on Postsuccession Organizational Performance,” Human Resource Management 55, no. 6 (2016): 967–84; S. Finkelstein, “Why the Best Leaders Want Their Superstar Employees to Leave,” The Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2016, https://www.wsj.com/articles/why-the-best-leaders-want-their-superstar-employees-to-leave-1475460841; and D. L. Shapiro, P. Hom, W. Shen, and R. Agarwal, “How Do Leader Departures Affect Subordinates Organizational Attachment? A 360-Degree Relational Perspective,” Academy of Management Review 41, no. 3 (2016): 479–502.

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Accounting

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PLEASE READ THE CASE STUDY ATTAC
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Please answer the following questions:
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1. What are the key similarities and differences in the business models of Signet, Tiffany and Blue Nile? How are these factors reflected in their financial ratios? An Excel copy of the ratios is enclosed on Canvas in the spreadsheet “Signet Exhibits and Ratios.”
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2. Which of the three companies is performing better? Why?
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3. How do you assess the performance of Signet’s in-house financing program?
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4. Do you think Signet should continue to offer an in-house financing program? What are the risks involved?
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5. Do you agree with Cohode’s critique of Signet’s bad debt expense policy?
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Useful Resources
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How Do the Current Ratio and Quick Ratio Differ? (Links to an external site.) https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/062714/what-are-main-differences-between-current-ratio-and-quick-ratio.asp
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Liquidity Ratio (Links to an external site.) https://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/liquidityratios.asp
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Decoding DuPont Analysis https://www.investopedia.com/articles/fundamental-analysis/08/dupont-analysis.asp

Categories
Accounting

<when we have the opportunity to hand-pick team members, we can look for those who listen as much as they speak, express empathy, and remember what others tell them about themselves.

Case Incident 2: Smart Teams and Dumb Teams found on pages 349-350 in the textbook.
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Please submit your detailed case analysis here. The guidelines should be followed as posted in the Course Documents tab.
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When doing the assignment for this week’s Case Study, be sure to review the OB Case Analysis Requirements under the ‘Course Documents’ tab. To summarize the Guidelines:
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– Begin the case with a summary of the case presented
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– Analyze and discuss the issues in the case – this is usually a good place to use outside research of the subject matter – use the research to give you a better understanding, do not copy and paste; cite your sources
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– Give your recommendations – this is where you use the questions provided at the end of the case to guide you in your recommendations; do not number the questions, just include your thoughts in paragraph form
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– Give a strong conclusion to wrap up the case
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Case Incident 2: Smart Teams and Dumb Teams
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In this chapter, we’ve identified how some of the characteristics we use to describe individuals can also describe teams. For example, individuals can be high in the trait of openness, as can a team. Along the same lines, have you noticed that some teams seem to be smart, while others seem, um, dumb? This characteristic has nothing to do with the average IQ of the team members but instead reflects the functionality of the whole team. Teams that are synergistic excel in logical analysis, brainstorming, coordination, planning, and moral reasoning. And teams that are dumb? Think of long unproductive meetings, social loafing, and interpersonal conflicts.
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You might be remembering a few teams you’ve witnessed that are in the dumb category, but we hope you can think of a few that excelled. Smart teams tend to be smart in everything—for any task, they will find a workable solution. But what makes them smart? Researchers in a Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) study grouped 697 subjects into teams of 2 to 5 members to solve tasks, looking for the characteristics of smart teams (they weren’t all smart). Here are the findings:
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Smart teams did not allow individual members to dominate. Instead, there were more equal contributions from members than in other teams.
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Smart teams had more members who were able to read minds. Just kidding! But the members were able to read complicated emotions by looking into the eyes of others. There is a test for this ability called Reading the Mind in the Eyes.
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Smart teams had more women. It’s not that smart teams had more gender equality; these teams simply had more women. This result might be partly due to the fact that more women scored higher in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test.
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The researchers recently replicated the study using 68 teams and again found that some teams were smarter than others. This study added a new angle to the research: How would teams working in person differ from teams working online? Surprisingly, there was little difference: All smart teams had more equal member communication (and plenty of it) and were good at emotion reading. When the online collaborators could not see each other, they practiced theory of mind, remembering and reacting to the emotional cues they were able to detect through any mode of communication. Theory of mind is related to emotional intelligence (EI), which we discussed in Chapter 4.
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When we have the opportunity to hand-pick team members, we can look for those who listen as much as they speak, express empathy, and remember what others tell them about themselves. For teams to which we are assigned, we can seek these attributes in others and help guide the team toward its best self. As for IQ? Here’s the good news: Recent research indicates that our membership in a team actually makes us smarter decision makers as individuals!
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Questions
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10-16. From your experiences in teams, do you agree with the researchers’ findings on the characteristics of smart teams? Why or why not?
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10-17. On the highly functioning teams in which you’ve been a member, what other characteristics might have contributed to success?
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10-18. The authors who suggested that membership in a team makes us smarter found that teams were more rational and quicker at finding solutions to difficult probability problems and reasoning tasks than were individuals. After participation in the study, team members were much better at decision making on their own, even up to 5 weeks later. Do you think this spillover effect would happen equally for people in smart teams and dumb teams? Why or why not?
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Sources: Based on E. E. F. Bradford, I. Jentzsch, and J.-C. Gomez, “From Self to Cognition: Theory of Mind Mechanisms and Their Relation to Executive Functioning,” Cognition 138 (2015): 21–34; B. Maciejovsky, M. Sutter, D. V. Budescu, et al., “Teams Make You Smarter: How Exposure to Teams Improves Individual Decisions in Probability and Reasoning Tasks,” Management Science 59, no. 6 (2013): 1255–70; and A. Woolley, T. W. Malone, and C. Chabris, “Why Some Teams Are Smarter Than Others,” The New York Times, January 18, 2015, 5.

Categories
Accounting

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Read the Point – Counter Point on Page 384 of Chapter Eleven in your textbook. Take a position and then debate your position on the Discussion Board. Provide references to the textbook, consult outside sources, and reply to a minimum of 2 of your classmates.
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We Should Use Employees’ Social Media Presence
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Point
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Everyone uses social media. Well, almost everyone: A Pew Research Center study found that the highest percentage of adults who use social-networking sites was in Israel, at 53 percent, followed by 50 percent in the United States, 43 percent in Russia and Great Britain, and 42 percent in Spain.
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Business is social, and using employees’ social contacts to increase business has always been a facet of marketing. Organizations that don’t follow their employees’ social media presence are missing an opportunity to expand their business and strengthen their workforce. For example, the Honda employee who once told 30 friends that Honda is best can now tell 300 Facebook friends and 500 Twitter followers about the latest model. Employees’ savvy about social media can have a substantial positive effect on the bottom line.
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Monitoring employees’ social media presence can also strengthen the workforce by identifying the best talent. Managers can look for potential online celebrities—frequent bloggers and Twitter users with many followers—to approach for co-branding partnerships. Scrutiny can also help employers spot problems. For example, consider the employee who is fired one day and turns violent. A manager who had been monitoring the employee’s social media posts may be able to detect warning signs. A human resources department monitoring employees’ social media activity may be able to identify a substance abuse problem and provide help for the employee through the company’s intervention policies.
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A job candidate’s social media presence provides one more input to hiring and retention decisions that many organizations already take advantage of. In reality, there is no difference between the employee and the person—they are one and the same, on or off working hours.
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Employers that monitor social media can also identify employees who use their platforms to send out bad press or who leak proprietary information. For this reason, managers may someday be required to monitor employees’ social media postings and to act on infringements of company policies. Many do so already.
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Managers should therefore develop enforceable social media policies and create a corporate infrastructure to research and monitor social media activity regularly. The potential increase in business and limit on liability is ample return for dedicating staff and work hours to building a successful social media program.
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Counterpoint
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There is little to be gained and much to be lost when organizations follow candidates’ and employees’ presence on social media. Managers may be able to learn more about individuals through their online activity, and organizations may be able to catch some good press from employee postings, but the risk of liability for this intrusion on privacy is inescapable. Managers are ill-equipped to monitor, interpret, and act on employees’ social media postings, and few have any experience with relating the medium to business use.
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Managers may also easily misinterpret the information they find. Few companies have training programs for the proper use of social media; only 40 percent have social media policies of any kind. Those that do are skating on thin ice because monitoring policies can conflict with privacy regulations.
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An employee’s online image doesn’t reveal much that is relevant to the job, certainly not enough to warrant the time and money that a business would spend on monitoring. Most users view social media as a private, recreational venue, and their membership on Facebook and other sites should be regarded with the same respect as would membership in a club. In this light, monitoring employees’ social media accounts is an unethical violation of their right to privacy.
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Equal employment opportunity laws require companies to hire without respect to race, age, religion, national origin, or disability. But managers who check into candidates’ social media postings often find out more than the candidate wanted to share, and then there is no way to keep that information from affecting the hiring decision. Searching through social media can therefore expose a company to a costly discrimination claim.
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Using employees’ personal social media presence as a marketing tool through company-supportive postings is unethical from many standpoints. First, it is unethical to expect employees to expand the company’s client base through their personal contacts. Second, it is unreasonable to expect them to endorse the company after working hours. And the practice of asking employees for their social media passwords is an obvious intrusion into their personal lives.
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In sum, people have a right to a professional and a private image. Unless the employee is offering to “friend” the company in a social media partnership, there is no question that employers should stay out of their personal business.
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Sources: Based on S. F. Gale, “Policies Must Score a Mutual Like,” Workforce Management 91, no. 8 (2012): 18-9; R. Huggins and S. Ward, “Countries with the Highest Percentage of Adults Who Use Social Networking Sites,” USA Today, February 8, 2012, 1A; A. L. Kavanaugh et al., “Social Media Use by Government: From the Routine to the Critical,” Government Information Quarterly (October 2012): 480–91; and S. Johnson, “Those Facebook Posts Could Cost You a Job,” San Jose Mercury News, January 16, 2012, www.mercurynews.com/business/ci_19754451.

Categories
Accounting

See attachment. i can add in an in text citation and reference from the course t

See attachment. I can add in an in text citation and reference from the course textbook after you’re done with the paper, unless you have access to the course text book, which I listed in the attachment. Thank you!

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Accounting

There are 3 parts to this assignment: 5 page paper, 1 page executive summary, and 3 slides powerpoint.

See attachment for full details. There are 3 parts to this Assignment: 5 page paper, 1 page Executive Summary, and 3 slides PowerPoint. I can add an in text citation and Reference from the course textbook after your done with the assignment, unless you have access to the textbook which it’s listed in the attachment under Required Resources. Recommend writing about Apple (AAPL).

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Accounting

Please respond to the Ethical Dilemma questions: “Follies of Reward”, found on p

Please respond to the Ethical Dilemma questions: “Follies of Reward”, found on page 245. Responses should be submitted in complete sentences with proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation. Please be thoughtful in writing detailed work using specific examples when appropriate. Outside research should be sought in support of your work; please be sure to cite sources. Personal experience can also be used, in place of outside research.
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Ethical Dilemma Follies of Reward
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Most of the time, we have good intentions when we try to reward others. We might give a bonus to an employee who has done an exceptionally good job all year. Or our reward systems might be a little more institutionalized. For example, a movie theater might reward an employee for eliciting charity donations from moviegoers, or a realtor might receive a commission for each house she sells.
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Sometimes, however, even with good intentions, we may be rewarding the wrong thing. In a classic article of the same title, Steven Kerr outlines this “Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B.” For example, if you go to the doctor’s office, the doctor can make two types of errors: (1) pronouncing you well when you are actually sick and (2) pronouncing you sick when you are actually well. If the doctor commits the first error, the consequences are grave—there could be a threat of a lawsuit, malpractice, or negligence. If the doctor commits the second error, the consequences have much less of an impact—the doctor generates more income, establishes a more regular customer base, and is rewarded by society for taking a “conservative” approach to diagnosis. These reward and punishment differences persist, even when there is the chance that treatment without due cause can cause more harm than good. However, shouldn’t society seek to minimize both types of errors and instead seek medical diagnostic accuracy as a goal?
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In a more recent example, one study found that a monthly perfect attendance award program across five industrial laundry plants did not work the way it was intended to: When participants became ineligible for the award, they showed up less frequently. The employees became so focused on attendance that their efficiency decreased by 8 percent because many of them would become ineligible for the reward after coming in late or missing a day during the month period. The plant was rewarding attendance and hoping for good performance.
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Questions
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7-11. How do you think we might be able to recognize when we are rewarding the wrong thing? What steps can organizations take to recognize these instances?
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7-12. Is rewarding the unintended behavior or outcome always unethical? Why or why not?
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7-13. Do you think it is possible for a reward program to start out rewarding the appropriate behavior at its inception but then begin to reward the wrong thing over time? Why or why not?
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Sources: Based on T. Gubler, I. Larkin, and L. Pierce, “Motivational Spillovers from Awards: Crowding Out in a Multitasking Environment,” Organization Science 27, no. 2 (2016): 286–303; and S. Kerr, “On the Folly of Rewarding A, While Hoping for B,” Academy of Management Journal 18, no. 4 (1975): 769–83.

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Accounting

Read the Point – Counter Point on Page 166 of Chapter Five in your textbook. Tak

Read the Point – Counter Point on Page 166 of Chapter Five in your textbook. Take a position and then debate your position on the Discussion Board. Provide references to the textbook and consult outside sources
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Counterpoint
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Wasn’t “The Me Generation” generations ago? Honestly, every generation thinks they are better than the ones that come after! “You can find complaints [about the younger generation] in Greek literature, in the Bible,” Professor Cappelli of the Wharton School observed. “There’s no evidence Millennials are different. They’re just younger.” While millennials are the twenty-somethings of today, what is universally true is that young people share certain characteristics … because they are young.
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A recent study shows the similarity between how millennials and baby boomers thought about themselves at the same stage of life. As college freshmen, 71 percent of millennials thought they were above average academically, and 63 percent of baby boomers thought the same thing when they were college freshmen. Similarly, 77 percent of millennials believed they were above average in the drive to achieve, versus 68 percent for baby boomers. In other words, “Every generation is Generation Me.”
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In some ways, millennials may be less narcissistic than baby boomers today. As one manager observed, “[Millennials] don’t have that line between work and home that used to exist, so they’re doing Facebook for the company at night, on Saturday or Sunday. We get incredible productivity out of them.” Millennials also may be more altruistic. For example, 29 percent of millennials believe individuals have a responsibility to remain involved in issues and causes for the good of all, while only 24 percent of baby boomers feel the same level of responsibility.
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Rather than comparing different generations, it is more accurate to compare people at one life stage with others at the same life stage. Research supports that people in their twenties tend to be more narcissistic than people in their fifties. Millennials are in their twenties, and many of their parents are in their fifties, and millennials are no more narcissistic than baby boomers were in their youth.
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Sources: Based on J. M. Twenge, W. K. Campbell, and E. C. Freeman, “Generational Differences in Young Adults’ Life Goals, Concern for Others, and Civic Orientation, 1966–2009,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 102 (2012): 1045–62; M. Hartman, “Millennials at Work: Young and Callow, Like Their Parents,” The New York Times, March 25, 2014, F4; J. Jin and J. Rounds, “Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies,” Journal of Vocational Behavior 80 (2012): 326–39; C. Lourosa-Ricardo, “How America Gives,” The Wall Street Journal, December 15, 2014, R3; “Millennials Rule,” The New York Times Education Life, April 12, 2015, 4; G. Ruffenach, “A Generational Gap: Giving to Charity,” The Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2015, R4; and S. W. Lester, R. L. Standifer, N. J. Schultz, and J. M. Windsor, “Actual versus Perceived Generational Differences at Work: An Empirical Examination,” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 19 (2012): 341–54.